HTTP Live Streaming (HLS) Format – The Pros, Cons and How it Works

By Max Wilbert

8 Min Read

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Max Wilbert

Max Wilbert is a passionate writer, live streaming practitioner, and has strong expertise in the video streaming industry.

Table of Contents

    This blog focuses on HLS, or HTTP live streaming, which is one of the most popular protocols used to stream video today. HLS format is an adaptive bitrate live streaming video protocol. Originally developed by Apple for use on iOS, Mac OS, and Apple TV devices, HLS streaming has become the most widely used live video protocol.

    This article is going to take a look at the pros and cons of HTTP live streaming. We’ll compare it to a few alternative formats as well. We’ll also look at the history of the HLS format, and ask where it came from, and why.

    Table of Contents:

    • How HTTP Live Streaming (HLS) works
    • Pros of Using the HLS Protocol
    • Cons of using the HTTP Live Streaming Protocol
    • Solutions to the Latency Problem
    • Conclusion

    How HTTP Live Streaming (HLS) Works

    How HTTP Live Streaming works
    Dacast’s HTML5 All Device Video Player with White Label Customization runs on HTTP Live Streaming technology.

    HLS video is delivered via the HTML5 web communication protocol, the latest online standard for web content. HTML5 video players support online video delivered via a variety of protocols. These include HTTP Live Streaming (HLS) and MPEG-DASH.

    You can think of the streaming protocol as the method that defines what format the video uses, how it’s compressed, the size of the chunks sent, and so on.

    HLS was developed to provide an alternative to Flash video. Technically speaking, uses H.264 video compression, AAC, or MP3 for audio compression, and transmits streams using the MPEG-TS container format.

    Video streaming via HLS works by chopping an MP4 video stream into short, ~10-second video chunks. Streams are described using M3U8 playlists that are created by the HTTP server. This playlist also called a manifest file, indexes the video chunks.

    Pros of Using the HLS Protocol

    Over the past few years, the HLS format has become a standard protocol for web video, and with good reason. HLS ingest is pretty simple to set up, it’s free to use, and it’s supported on a wide range of devices. Let’s take a look at some of the pros of using the HLMS protocol for video streaming.

    1. All-Device Delivery

    HTML5 video player
    By using HTML5, developers no longer worry about which browser or which extension their visitors use.

    First, HTTP Live Streaming supports video on just about every device. Although it was originally created for use on Safari and iOS devices, the HLS format is now supported on every modern web browser—mobile, desktop, tablet, etc.

    Whether you and your viewers are accessing content on a smartphone, tablet, desktop, or laptop, smart TV, set-top box, or any other device, HLS video will play. A majority of web browsers also support the leading alternative—MPEG-DASH—but iOS and Safari don’t. That’s a major advantage. For this reason, HLS remains the de facto standard.

    2. Excellent Quality

    hls format
    ABR is a method where broadcasters offer multiple streams with different bitrates to users, resulting in an ideal HLS video format.

    The HLS video format uses a method called Adaptive Bitrate Streaming. This method measures the internet speed available to each viewer of a given video. Then, the video quality they are being served is adjusted dynamically.

    For example, you may begin watching a video at home, where you have a fast Wi-Fi connection. Then, you may leave home and get in a car with a friend, and continue watching the video with a mobile connection. This internet may be slower. You may also pass through areas of limited bandwidth availability. Even a dedicated home or work internet connection can have a significant variation in internet speeds.

    Video delivered using the HLS format, if configured properly, will dynamically provide you with the best possible video quality while minimizing buffering and lagging. This approach leads to a superior user experience. The video will attempt to continue playing as much as possible. Quality will scale up as long as your internet is fast enough to handle the load.

    3. Cost-Efficient

    Another major advantage of the HLS format is its lower cost. As we’ve said, the format is supported by just about every device via HTML5 and Media Source Extensions. There’s no need to use a specific device to watch the content. Standard web servers can handle HLS delivery with no problem (depending on load and other factors).

    4. Privacy and Security

    The final benefit of HLS that we’ll highlight here is privacy and security. Compared to Flash, HLS simply provides a more secure browser for your viewers—both when they’re watching your content, as well as afterward.

    Cons of using the HTTP Live Streaming Protocol

    No protocol or technology is perfect, and HTTP Live Streaming is no different. There are a few cons to using the HLS format. Let’s take a look at one of the most prevalent issues: latency.

    1. Latency

    Latency refers to the elapsed time between when an event occurs in the real world, and when viewers can see it. Essentially, it’s the time that it takes for a video to be recorded by a camera, processed by an HLS encoder, transmitted across the internet, distributed to “edge” servers, and decoded for viewing.

    Note that video latency doesn’t account for slowdowns due to internet speed and bottlenecks; these are largely separate issues.

    2. Internet Speed

    HLS was designed to maximize quality, not to minimize absolute latency. Its keyframe interval, packet size, and playback buffer requirement simply aren’t suitable for super-rapid live streaming. Therefore, it usually adds a delay of 20-60 seconds to your stream. These live streaming software platforms offer integrated low latency solutions, and those are the ones to consider.

    Slow internet speeds are only a problem for a small subset of live streamers—notably, video gamers and sports fans. In these situations, speed is important. However, most users can easily ignore the small latency of hosting an HLS stream as it will have no impact on viewer satisfaction or experience. For almost all viewers, a high-quality video that is watchable anytime, on any device, is more important than latency.

    Solutions to the Latency Problem

    Flash video provided low latency live streaming. But with the decline of Flash, internet video is in a transition period. There aren’t any fantastic solutions to the HLS latency issue yet. But many different businesses are working on it, including top-tier CDN provider Akamai. Replacements for HLS are in the works (such as fragmented MP4), but devices aren’t yet ready to play them. That next shift may still be a few years out.

    Here at Dacast, we’re offering a low-latency HLS streaming solution for our Premium plans and above. This solution lowers latency to the range of 10 seconds or less. It meets modern browser security standards via HTTPS delivery and still allows you to reach all mobile devices.

    Conclusion

    hls live streaming video format
    To ensure the highest video quality possible, broadcasters will want to choose the right streaming protocol as well.

    HLS is a powerful technology that’s become one of the industry standards. Hopefully, this article has educated you on the basics of this live streaming technology, how it works, and what its upsides and downsides are.

    Any questions about the HLS format? You can do your first live stream today with the Dacast HLS video streaming software. If you’re ready to try it today, you can take advantage of our free 30-day trial. No credit card is required.

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    For exclusive offers and regular live streaming tips, you’re also invited to join our LinkedIn group.

    Finally, do you have further questions, thoughts, or feedback about this article? We’d love to hear from you in the comments below, and we will get back to you.

    Thanks for tuning in, and good luck with your live streams!

    author avatar

    Max Wilbert

    Max Wilbert is a passionate writer, live streaming practitioner, and has strong expertise in the video streaming industry.

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